Facts Biological Facts and Biology Branch of Science Question Answers

Facts Biological Facts

Miscellaneous Question Answers

1. What is a eukaryote? 

Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells contain a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles. There is a wide range of eukaryotic organisms, including all animals, plants, fungi, and protists, as well as most algae. Eukaryotes may be either single-celled or multicellular.

2. What five things do most animal cells contain?

They have the same cell components as animal cells: a nucleus, cell membrane, cytoplasm and mitochondria. They also have these extra three as well: the Cell wall: a tough outer layer of the cell, which contains cellulose to provide strength and support to the plant.

3. What cell structures are found only in plant cells?

Plant cells have certain distinguishing features, including chloroplasts, cell walls, and intracellular vacuoles. Photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts; cell walls allow plants to have strong, upright structures; and vacuoles help regulate how cells handle water and storage of other molecules.

4. What is the function of the ribosomes?

Ribosomes have two main functions — decoding the message and the formation of peptide bonds. These two activities reside in two large ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) of unequal size, the ribosomal subunits. Each subunit is made of one or more ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and many ribosomal proteins (r-proteins).

5. How is a sperm cell specialised?

The acrosome in the head contains enzymes so that sperm can penetrate an egg. The middle piece is packed with mitochondria to release the energy needed to swim and fertilise the egg. The tail enables the sperm to swim. Sperm are the smallest cells in the body and millions of them are made.

6. What is a stem cell?

An undifferentiated cell can be made to differentiate to form different types of cells. Stem cells are the body's raw materials cells from which all other cells with specialized functions are generated. Under the right conditions in the body or a laboratory, stem cells divide to form more cells called daughter cells.

7. What is the equation for microscopy?

Magnification = size of image / size of real object. If f(x) is locally linear at x = a, then f(a + ∆x) ⇡ f(a) + f0(a)∆x for ∆x small enough. It's called “the microscope equation” because it tells us what a function y = f(x), locally linear at a point x = a, looks like “under a microscope” focus on that point: it looks like its tangent line there!

8. What is diffusion?

Movement of particles from an area of high concentration to low concentration. Diffusion is the movement of a substance from an area of high concentration to an area of lower concentration. Diffusion occurs in liquids and gases when their particles collide randomly and spread out. Diffusion is an important process for living things - it is how substances move in and out of cells.

9. What factors affect the rate of diffusion?

Concentration/temperature/surface area. The rate of diffusion is affected by the concentration gradient, membrane permeability, temperature, and pressure. Diffusion takes place as long as there is a difference between the concentrations of a substance across a barrier.

10. What is osmosis?

Movement of water from a dilute area to a concentrated area. In biology, osmosis is the movement of water molecules from a solution with a high concentration of water molecules to a solution with a lower concentration of water molecules, through a cell's partially permeable membrane.

11. What is active transport?

Movement of substances from an area of low concentration to high concentration, against the concentration gradient

12. What is the main difference between diffusion and active transport?

Active transport requires energy whereas diffusion does not.

13. The principles of organisation are:

cell – tissue – organ – organ system

14. What are carbohydrates used in the body for? (What is their function?)

Provide energy

15. Give an example of a food that is high in carbohydrates.


16. What is the name of the enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates?


17. What are lipids made from?

Fatty acids and glycerol

18. What are proteins used in the body for? (What is their function?)

Growth and repair

19. Give an example of a food that is high in protein.

Eggs or meat

20. What percentage of your cells is water?


21. What does a diet high in fibre prevent?


22. What are good sources of vitamins?

Fruits and vegetables

23. Which vitamins and minerals are needed for healthy teeth and bones?

Vitamin D and Calcium

24. What equipment do you use to crush the food sample to prepare a food solution?

Pestle and mortar

25. What chemical do you use to test for starch?


26. A positive test for starch is when the colour changes from orange–brown to which colour?


27. What chemical do you use to test for lipids (fats) in a solution?


28. Benedict’s solution is a turquoise blue colour; it turns orange red when there is which substance present?


29. Give an example of simple sugar.


30. How is the liver involved in digestion?

It produces bile, which helps break down lipids.

31. State the unit that energy in food is measured.

Joules (J)

32. What is the scientific term for someone who is extremely overweight?


33. Name the 3 types of a blood vessel in the human body.

Vein, artery and capillaries.

34. What is the function of red blood cells?

To carry oxygen around the body. They contain haemoglobin.

35. What is health?

A state of physical and mental well-being

36. What two things can diseases be classified as?

Communicable and non-communicable

37. What are some risk factors for an increased rate of disease?

Aspects of a person's lifestyle or substances in the person's body or


38. What is cancer?

Changes in cells that lead to uncontrolled growth and division

39. What is a benign tumour?

Growths of abnormal cells that are contained to one area and do not invade

other parts of the body

40. What is a malignant tumour?

Cancer. Invade neighbouring tissues and spread to different parts of the body

41. How do cancers spread?

In the blood

42. Name at least 2 plant tissues.

Epidermal tissues/palisade mesophyll/spongy mesophyll/xylem/phloem/meristem

43. How are root hair cells adapted for their function?

Large surface area to take up water by osmosis and minerals by active transport

44. What can diseases be caused by?

Viruses, bacteria, protists and fungi

45. What is a pathogen?

Microorganisms that cause infectious diseases

46. Why do viruses cause cell damage?

Because they live and reproduce inside living cells

47. Give an example of a viral disease.

Measles/HIV/Tobacco mosaic virus

48. Give an example of a bacterial disease.


49. Give an example of a fungal disease.

Rose black spot

50. Give an example of a protist disease.

Pathogens that cause malaria

51. Name the non-specific defence system for the human body.

Skin, nose, trachea and stomach

52. What happens if a pathogen enters the body?

The immune system tries to destroy the pathogen

53. What is the role of white blood cells?

Defend against pathogens

54. What are the three ways white blood cells defend?

Phagocytosis, antibodies and antitoxins

55. What do vaccinations do?

Prevent illness in an individual

56. What is an antibiotic?

Medicines that help cure bacterial diseases

57. What are painkillers?

Treat the symptoms of disease but do not kill pathogens

58. Why do new drugs need to be tested before they are used?

To ensure they’re safe and effective

59. What is the photosynthesis equation?


Carbon dioxide + water --------> Glucose + Oxygen


60. What factors can affect the rate of photosynthesis?

Temperature, light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration and amount of chlorophyll

61. What is the use of glucose from photosynthesis?

Respiration, conversion to starch, production of fat and oil, production of cellulose, production of amino acids.

62. What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic respiration?

Aerobic uses oxygen whereas anaerobic respiration does not.

63. What is metabolism?

Sum of all the reactions in a cell or body.

64. What is the equation for aerobic respiration?

Glucose + oxygen -> carbon dioxide + Water (energy released)

65. What is homeostasis?

Maintains optimal conditions for enzyme action and all cell functions

66. What is the purpose of the nervous system?

To enable humans to react to their surroundings and co-ordinate behaviour

67. What makes up the CNS?

Brain and spinal cord

68. What is a hormone?

A chemical

69. What does the pancreas do?

Controls levels of blood sugar

70. What disorder is caused by the lack of Insulin produced by the pancreas?


71. What is the main female hormone produced in the ovary?


72. What is the role of testosterone?

Stimulates sperm production

73. How can you control fertility?

Hormonal and non-hormonal methods

74. When is adrenaline produced?

In times of fear or stress

75. What is a gamete?

Sex cells

76. What is sexual reproduction?

The fusing of male and female gametes

77. What is genetic material made from?


78. What shape is DNA?

Double helix

79. What is a gene?

A small section of DNA on a chromosome

80. What is the genome?

The genome of an organism is the entire genetic material of that organism

81. How many pairs of chromosomes are in an ordinary human body?


82. What are the sex chromosomes that control gender?

XX = Female XY = Male

83. What is the variation?

Differences in the characteristics of individuals in a population

84. What is evolution?

A change in inherited characteristics of a population over time

85. What is selective breeding?

Breeding plants and animals to get specific characteristics

86. Why might you genetically engineer plant crops?

To make them resistant to attack and increase yield

87. Name a concern of GM crops

It May affect the populations of wildflowers and insects

88. What is a fossil?

Remains of organisms from millions of years ago, they’re found in rocks

89. When do extinctions occur?

When there are no individuals or a species still alive

90. What is an ecosystem?

The interaction of a community of living organisms with non-living parts of their environment

91. Name 2 abiotic factors.

Light intensity/temperature/moisture levels/soil pH/Wind intensity/carbon dioxide levels (plants)/oxygen levels (animals)

92. Name 2 biotic factors.

Availability of food/new predators/new pathogens/species competition

93. How is a Polar Bear adapted to its environment?

Thick fur to keep warm/small ears to reduce heat loss/large paws to spread load on snow and ice/thick layer of fat to store energy

94. What is a predator?

Consumers that kill and eat other animals

95. What happens to all materials in the living world?

Recycled to provide building blocks for future organisms

96. What is the water cycle?

Water continuously being evaporated and precipitated

97. What is biodiversity?

Variety of all the different species of organisms on earth. Biodiversity is all the different kinds of life you'll find in one area—the variety of animals, plants, fungi, and even microorganisms like bacteria that make up our natural world. Each of these species and organisms work together in ecosystems, like an intricate web, to maintain balance and support life.

98. Where can pollution occur?

There are four main types of air pollution sources: mobile sources – such as cars, buses, planes, trucks, and trains. stationary sources – such as power plants, oil refineries, industrial facilities, and factories. area sources – such as agricultural areas, cities, and wood burning fireplaces.

99. How are humans reducing the amount of land available for other animals?

Humans reduce the amount of land available for other organisms by: building, quarrying, farming and dumping waste (landfill). This in turn can reduce biodiversity.

100. What is contributing to global warming?

Levels of carbon dioxide and methane. Burning fossil fuels, cutting down forests and farming livestock are increasingly influencing the climate and the earth's temperature. This adds enormous amounts of greenhouse gases to those naturally occurring in the atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect and global warming.

Biology – Branch of science in which living beings are studied.

Bios = Life & Logos = Study. Therefore study of life is called biology. The term biology was first coined by Lamarck and Treviranus in the year 1801. Biology has two main branch.

1. Botany : Study of different aspects of plants. Theophrastus is known as father of Botany.

2. Zoology : Study of various aspects of animals. Aristotle is called father of Zoology as well as Biology.

Important Terms of Biology :

1. Anatomy : Study of internal structure of organism.

2. Agrology : Soil science dealing specially with production of crop.

3. Agronomy : Science of soil management and production of crop.

4. Agrostology : Study of grass.

5. Arthrology : Study of joints.

6. Apiculture : Rearing of honey bee for honey.

7. Anthropology : Study of origin, development and relationship between the culture of past and present human.

8. Anthology : Study of flower and flowering plant.

9. Angiology : Study of blood vascular system including arteries and veins.

10. Andrology : Study of male reproductive organ.

11. Bryology : Study of Bryophytes.

12. Biometrics : Statical study of Biological problem.

13. Biomedical engineering : Production and designing of spare part for overcoming various defects in man. e.g. artificial limbs, Iron lung, Pacemaker etc.

14. Biotechnology : Technology concerned with living beings for wilful manipulation on molecular level.

15. Bacteriology : Study of bacteria.

16. Cytology : Study of cell.

17. Cryobiology : It is the study of effect of low temperature on organisms and their preservation.

18. Clone : Clones are geneticaly identical individual in a population.

19. Cardiology : Study of heart.

20 .Demography : Study of population.

21. Diffusion : Random movement of molecule / ion or gases from a region of higher concentration to lower concentration.

22. Dermatology : Study of skin.

23. Dendrochronology : Counting and analysing annual growth rings of tree to know its age.

24. Ecology : Study of inter-relationship between living and their environment.

25. Evolution : Study of origin of life, variation and formation of new species.

26. Embryology : Study of fertilization of egg, formation of zygote and development of embryo.

27. Eugenics : Study of factors connected with the improvement of human race.

28. Euthenics : Study of environmental condition that contribute to the improvement of human beings.

29. Euphenics : Treatment of defective in heredity through genetics engineering.

30. Ethnology : Study of science dealing with different races of human.

31. Ethology : Study of animal behaviour in their natured habitats.

32. Etiology : Study of causative agent of disease.

33. Entomology : Study of insects.

34. Exobiology : Study of possibility of life in space.

35. Floriculture : Cultivation of plant for flower.

36. Food technology : Scientific processing, preservation, storage and transportation of food.

37. Forensic science : Application of science for identification of various facts of civilian.

38. Fishery : Catching, breeding, rearing and marketing of fishes.

39. Forestry : Development and management of forest.

40. Fermentation : Process of incomplete oxidation that occur in microbes and other cells in absence of oxygen, leading to the formation of ethyl alcohol.

41. Genetics : Study of variation and transmission of heredity character from parents to their young Ones.

42. Growth : Permanent increase in weight, volume and size of an organism.

43. Genetic Engineering : Manipulation of gene in order to improve the organism.

44. Gynecology : Study of female reproductive organ.

45. Gerontology : Study of ageing.

46. Gastroenterology : Study of alimentary canal or stomach, intestine and their disease.

47. Hypertonic : When two solution have differcut sdute concentration. The sol at ion which have higher concentration is called hypertonic.

48. Hypotonic : In two solutions which have lower solute concentration is called hypotonic

49. Homeothermic : Animals who have constant body temperature are called home thermic or warmblooded animal.

50. Histology : Study of tissue organisation and their internal structure with the help of microscope.

51. Hygiene : Science taking care of health.

52. Hydroponics : Study of growing plant without soil in water which contain nutrient.

53. Haematology : Study of blood.

54. Hepatology : Study of liver.

55. Ichthyology : Study of fishes.

56. Immunology : Study of immun system or resistance of body to disease.

57. Kalology : Study of human beauty.

58. Metazoans : All multicellular animals are called metazoans.

59. Monoecious : Plant which have both male and female flower

60. Morphology : Study of external structure.

61. Microbiology : Study of micro-organism like virus, bacteria, algae, fungi and protozoa.

62. Molecular biology : Study of molecule found in the body of living organism.

63. Medicine : Study of treating disease by drug.

64. Mammography : Branch of science which deal test of breast cancer.

65. Mycology : Study of fungi.

66. Nutrients : Chemical substance taken as food which are necessary for various function, growth and heath of living.

67. Neurology : Study of nervous system.

68. Neonatology : Study of new bom.

69. Nephrology : Study of kidneys.

70. Osmosis : Movement of water molecule across semipermeable membrane from the region of its higher concentration to the region of lower communication.

71. Odontology : Study of teeth and gum.

72. Osteology : Study of bones.

73. Oncology : Study of cancer and tumours.

74. Obstetrics : Science related with care of pregnant women before, during and after child birth.

75. Ornithology : Study of birds.

76. Ophthalmology : Study of eyes.

77. Orthopaedics : Diagnosis and repair of disorder of locomotery system.

78. Phytoplanlktons : Microscopic organism which passively float on the surface of water.

79. Parasite : Organism which depend on other living organism for their food and shelter.

80. Poikilothermic : Organism which change their body temperature according to surrounding. These are also called cold blooded animal.

81. Pigment : A substance which absorb light of certain wavelength like chlorophyll found in green leaves.

82. Paleontology : Study of fossils.

83. Physiology : Study of function of various system of organism.

84. Pathology : Study of diseases, effects, causable agents and transmission of pathogens.

85. Pomology : Study of fruit and fruit yielding plant.

86. Psychiatry : Treatment of mental disease.

87. Psychology : Study of human mind and behavior.

88. Pisciculture : Rearing of fishes.

89. Phycology : Study of algae.

90. Paediatrics : Branch of medicine dealing with children.

91. Parasitology : Study of parasites.

92. Photobiology : Effect of light on various biological processes.

93. Phylogeny : Evolutionary history of organism.

94. Physiotherapy : Treatment of body defects through massage and exercise.

95. Radiology : Science dealing with the effect of radiation on living beings.

96. Rhinology : Study of nose and olfactory organs.

97. Sonography : Study of ultrasound imaging.

98. Saurology : Study of lizards.

99. Serology : Study of serum, interaction of antigen and antibodies in the blood.

100. Sphygmology : Study of pulse and arterial pressure.

101. Taxonomy : Study of classification, nomenclature and identification of organism.

102. Telepathy : Communication of thoughts or ideas from one mind to another without normal use of senses. In other word this is the process of mental contact.

103. Veterinary Science : Science of health care and treatment of domestic animals.

What is living ?

1. The word living cannot be defined.

2. There are certain characters by which can be distinguished from non  living.

(i) Growth : Increase in the number of cell or mass is called growth

(ii) Reproduction : Living organism produce young ones of their same kind.

(iii) metabolism : Chemical reaction occurring inside a living cell.

(iv) Response of stimuli : Living have the ability to sense the condition of their surrounding and respond to these stimuli.

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