SAP PI Technical Interview Questions Answers

SAP PI Technical Interview Questions Answers

What is SAP PI/XI?

SAP Process Integration is part of the SAP NetWeaver platform and in NetWeaver 7.0 ehp2 and older versions it is called SAP NetWeaver Exchange Infrastructure XI. SAP NetWeaver Process Integration is part of a NetWeaver software component and is used for the exchange of information in the company’s internal system or with external parties. SAP PI/XI enables you to set up cross-system communication and integration and allows you to connect SAP and non-SAP systems based on different programming languages like Java and SAP ABAP. It provides an open-source environment that is necessary in complex system landscapes for the integration of systems and for communication. SAP Process Integration is a middleware to allow seamless integration between SAP and non-SAP application in a company or with systems outside the company.

Give an example of using the SAP PI system?

An application runs on different systems that are part of different business units in a company or is implemented in a distributed environment between different companies that has a business relationship with each other. In this environment, there is a need for seamless integration and transfer of information between different systems. SAP PI provides a middleware platform that doesn’t deal with how application components are implemented with business logic and focus more on data exchange between the different components.

Why do we need an SAP PI system? What are the key capabilities provided by the PI system?

In an organization, SAP ERP doesn’t contain a single system but consists of a number of integrated systems like SAP CRM, FICO, EWM, etc. SAP PI provides a platform as a single point of integration for all systems without touching complex legacy systems for all data and information exchange. These are the key capabilities that are provided by SAP Process Integration −

Connectivity − Using SAP PI, you can connect different applications and systems that have different technical ways of communication. It provides you with a variety of adapters that allow you to connect applications based on different protocols like HTTPS or a Remote Function called RFC.

Routing − Routing defines the rules for the flow of messages between different systems at run time.

Mapping − As SAP PI is used to connect different applications or systems in a distributed environment that can be set up between different companies so there is a possibility that the structure of data exchange between two components differs from each other.

What are the different installation options available for the SAP PI system?

When you run a scenario in SAP PI, the communication and processing capabilities depend on runtime engines that are installed with the installation of SAP PI. You can install one or more run time engines on a host system. SAP PI provides the following two installation options −

Type 1 Dual Usage Type − This installation is based on ABAP and Java and provides tools for designing and configuring integration content and also these run time engines − Integration Engine Business Process Engine Advanced Adapter Engine

Type 2 Advance Adapter Engine Extended AEX − This installation is based on Java and provides tools for designing and configuring integration content and contains an Advance adapter engine as a run time engine.

Explain the architecture and different components of the PI system?

SAP PI architecture consists of multiple components which are used at design time, configuration time, and run time. In SAP PI, the sender system is known as the source and receiver is called as target system and the architecture is known as Hub and Spoke structure. The Spoke is used to connect with external systems and the hub is used to exchange messages.

THE SAP PI system is divided into the following components − Integration Server Integration Builder System Landscape Directory SLD Configuration and Monitoring

What is the use of the Runtime workbench in the PI system?

This is a tool used to provide central monitoring of PI components and messages.

What is the use of an Integration server? What are the components of the Integration server?

This is one of the key components of the SAP PI system and is used for processing messages. It consists of three engines − Business Process Engine Integration Engine Central Advanced Adapter Engine AAE

What is a synchronous and asynchronous message in the SAP PI system?

A synchronous message is defined as a message containing both the request-response part. An asynchronous message is defined as a message containing an either request or the response part only.

What is the use of Adapter engine AAE in the PI system?

As the Integration engine handles messages in XML and SOAP protocol so if the business system doesn’t contain data in a specific format, Adapters are used to convert the messages specific protocol and message format required by the integration engine.

In a dual-stack system, what are the ABAP and Java stack adapters?

Java Stack Adapters − RFC adapter, SAP Business Connector adapter, file/FTP adapter, JDBC adapter, JMS adapter, SOAP adapter, Marketplace Adapter, Mail adapter, RNIF adapter, CIDX adapter

ABAP Stack Adapters − IDOC and HTTP adapter

What do you understand by single stack system?

In the latest releases when SAP PI moved to a single stack system, these two ABAP adapters are also moved to Java stack adapters and new engine is known as Advanced Adapter Engine AAE.

What is the use of Enterprise Service Repository?

This is used to store design time repository objects like mapping, interfaces and process definitions in PI system.

What is the use of the System Landscape directory SLD?

This directory contains information about landscape and software component versions. An SAP system can be configured to register under SLD.

Which SAP PI user interface tools you have used?

You can use different SAP PI user interface tools to access different components of SAP PI system architecture. The most common UI tools are −
ES Builder − This tool provides a Java user interface for working in Enterprise Service Repository ESR.

SAP NW Developer Studio − This is Java Eclipsed-based tool to view and edit some object types in Enterprise Service Repository.

Integration Builder − This tool provides Java based user interface to work in the Integration directory.

In the SAP PI system, it contains interface objects like service interface, data type, and message type. What is the cardinality between these objects?

Interface Objects − Service Interface, Data type, and message type Mapping Objects − Mapping of messages as per sender and receiver data structure

What is the use of message mapping? What are different message mapping types?

Operation Mapping is used for converting source structure to target structure if the data structure is different. Complex operation mapping can be simplified using message mapping. Message Mapping can be implemented in these ways − Graphical Mapping Java Mapping XSLT Mapping ABAP Mapping

What functions you can perform using the Web-based ESR function?

In a Web-based interface, you can perform these tasks − Search Search for service interfaces, data types, and so on Subscribe Subscribe for Notifications. Manage the lifecycle status of service interfaces, data types, and so on.

What is the use of the Integration directory?

The integration directory is used for the configuration of objects that are created in the Enterprise Service Repository and configuration is executed by the integration engine at run time. To configure ESR objects, you need to import the object - Service and Communication channel.

What are the different configurations that can be done in the Integration directory?

In the Integration directory, you can make four types of configuration − Sender Agreement to determine how the message is transformed by the Integration server. Receiver Determination is used to determine information of the receiver to whom the message is to be sent. Interface Determination is used to determine the inbound interface to which message to be sent and interface mapping for processing the message. The receiver agreement defines how the message is transformed and to be processed by the receiver.

To view the products and software components, which of the PI component can be used?

Under SLD, Software Catalog −
Products − To view products in the SAP software catalog.
Software components − To view software components in the SAP Software catalog.

How do you monitor the function of the Integration engine, CCMS integration, and process monitoring infrastructure in the SAP system?

Configuration and Monitoring option on the SAP PI tools home page allows you to monitor the functions of the integration engine, CCMS integration, and process monitoring infrastructure in the SAP system.

Which components you can configure and monitor under the Configuration and Monitoring option?

Using Configuration and Monitoring, you can monitor these functions −
Component Monitoring − To monitor different SAP PI Java and ABAP components.
Message Monitoring − To monitor the status of message processing in an SAP PI component. 
Performance Monitoring − Using a runtime workbench you can monitor different performance measures in an SAP PI system. You can create various aggregation reports.
End-to-End Monitoring − To monitor the end-to-end lifecycle in the SAP PI system for a scenario.
Message Index Search − You can perform Index based message search in message monitoring and you can also search based on adapter-specific selection, etc.
Alert Inbox − Alert inbox is as per the role assigned to a business user and is used for viewing all the alerts in the SAP PI system as per configuration.
Alert Configuration − Alert framework in C&M allows you to report all the errors during message processing in ABAP and Java. Using alert configuration, you can define policy if an alert has to be reported for error and to perform analysis or not.
Monitoring of runtime cache − This is used to view objects in the runtime cache.

In the SAP PI system, which tests you can perform under the monitoring and configuration part?

Send Test Message − To simulate a message flow and verify that the SAP NetWeaver Process Integration runtime is functioning correctly by sending a test message to the Integration Engine or the Advanced Adapter Engine.
Cache Connectivity Test − This is used to inspect the cache connectivity status of the infrastructure components of SAP NetWeaver Process Integration and test their connectivity with the runtime caches.

What is Synchronous communication under SAP PI communication?

In Synchronous communication, it is invoked by request and response operation and process output is returned immediately after the operation. In general terms, you can say that a synchronous scenario is when a sender process sends a request to the receiver and waits for a response. If an error occurs at the receiver side, the sender application is responsible for sending the message again. In this approach, there is a possibility that the sender might resend the message after time out and a duplicate message may exist. This approach in PI is known as BE Best Effort.

In Synchronous communication, what are common errors that can occur in this communication scenario?

Application Error − There is an error at the receiver end while processing a message and sender is not aware of this error and keeps waiting for the reply. 
Network level Error − In this error, there is an error in the communication network between the sender and receiver. The sender is not aware of this and the message is stuck in between and the sender waits till the operation timeout.
Error is response message − In this scenario, an error occurs and the response message gets stuck in between and sender keeps on waiting.

What are the benefits of using Synchronous communication?

There is no need to configure response message routing. There is no need to correlate a response to a request. In this communication, a response is received immediately.

Where do you prefer the Synchronous communication method in PI system? Any example?

This is suitable for operations that involve read operations. Example − viewing a purchase order.

What are the disadvantages of using Synchronous communication?

In case of a failure, the sender needs to send a message again. Receiving system should be configured to check duplicate messages. In this scenario, the sender application is blocked till a response is received or a time-out error occurs. You can’t configure multiple receivers.

What is asynchronous communication under SAP PI communication?

In Asynchronous communication, you add an intermediate system or a middleware between two systems. When a Sender application sends a request, it does not wait for the Receiving application to send the response. If there is a failure due to some reason, the middleware is responsible for resending the message. If required, the receiving system can send a response back to Sender as a separate asynchronous call.

Where do you recommend of using asynchronous communication under SAP PI communication?

This is recommended for modifying operations like creating a purchase order or modifying a purchase order.

What are the advantages of using asynchronous communication?

In case of failure, SAP PI system ensures the guaranteed delivery and will resend the message. No configure required for duplicate checks. You can configure multiple receivers in this scenario. Both the sender system and receiver system need not be online at the same time. PI logs all the messages send via asynchronous communication. No time out as the intermediate system keeps the message and response request.

What are the drawbacks of using asynchronous communication?

In this scenario, the sender needs to correlate responses to requests on its own. Response message needs to be implemented and routed separately. It doesn’t provide an immediate response.

To transfer the objects from one repository to other what are the different methods you can use?

For transferring information in form of objects from one Enterprise Service Repository to another, you can select between three mean of transport − File System Based Transport Change Management Service (CMS) Change and Transport System (CTS)

When you create a PI scenario, what are the different objects- mandate/non-mandate that you have to use?

Design ObjectMandatory & Function
Integration scenariosIt is not mandatory & It is used to bundle all necessary design objects
Message typesIt is mandatory & It is used to encapsulate data types
Data typesYes & It is used to describe the structure of data to be exchanged
Service InterfacesIt is mandatory & It encapsulates message types and parameters
MappingIt is not mandatory & to map of message
Integration processesIt is not mandatory & It defines cc BPA workflows

How you can transfer up-to-date software components in SLD

How do transfer software components in SLD? When you install the system landscape directory, the initial catalog is installed. From SAP Market Place, you can import a more up-to-date catalog. You can also import your own software components and products depending on the project and integration scenario.

How do you implement a File to File scenario in the PI system?

In SAP PI file-to-file scenario, we transfer a file from the source system to the target system. Once the components are built in SAP PI, you can transfer a file in the SAP PI system by creating objects in Enterprise Service Builder.

In the SAP PI F2F scenario, if the structure of my input file and the output file is different, how do you implement message and data types?

If the structure of my input file and the output file is the same, I can use one data type and one message type only. If the structure is different, you have to create two data types and message types for inbound and outbound. In this example, we are using the same structure of input and output files.

In SAP PI File to file scenario, what is the use of the service interface?

You have to create two service interfaces here one for inbound and one for outbound. Right-click on Namespace → New → Interface objects → Service Interface.

Name different adapters in AAE and Integration engine in the PI system and when they are used?

RFC Adapter − This adapter is used to communicate with other SAP systems using the RFC interface.
HTTP Adapter/HTTP AAE Adapter − It allows the exchange of data using the HTTP protocol, adapters are available both in the Integration engine and also in the Advanced Adapter Engine.
JDBC Adapter − It allows access to databases using JDBC
File/FTP Adapter − This adapter is used to perform data exchange with external systems using a file interface or an FTP server.
Mail Adapter − It allows you to connect e-mail servers to the Integration Engine.
IDoc Adapter − It allows the exchange of IDocs, adapters are available both in the Integration engine and also in the Advanced Adapter Engine.
XI Adapter − This adapter allows you to communicate using a proxy. This adapter does not run in the Advanced Adapter Engine and runs in the Integration Engine. it is used only for establishing the HTTP connection to the receiver.
WS Adapter − This adapter is used to provide connectivity with WS providers and WS consumers according to the standard Web Services Reliable Messaging (WS-RM) protocol. SAP has developed the WS-RM protocol with its own inbox, which is implemented in the ABAP stack on the Integration Engine.
JMS Adapter − It enables communication with messaging systems using the JMS API. 
SOAP Adapter − It allows the integration of remote clients or Web service providers using SOAP.

What is the use of Cross component BPM in the SAP PI system?

Business Process Management deals with cross-component BPM. This includes SAP workflow in the SAP backend and processing of messages on the Integration server. Cross component Business Process Management provides SAP NetWeaver Process Integration with functions for stateful message processing, that is, the status of an integration process is persisted on the Integration Server. This means that an integration process can, for example, wait infinitely until further messages are received or until a particular deadline is reached. Moreover, it is possible to process messages further within an integration process.

What is a web service?

A Web service is an application function or a service and can be used through internet standards. It is an independent, modular, and self-describing application function or service. It can be described, made available, located and transformed or called using the standard Internet protocols.

What are the quality of services under the asynchronous process in the PI system?

This approach in SAP PI is called exactly once EO or Exactly Once In Order EOIO.

Which adapter is used to contain central monitoring and configuration?

Adapter Engine

What are the different types of mapping that can be used in PI?

Graphical Mapping Java Mapping XSLT Mapping ABAP Mapping

Where do you execute the BPM process in the PI system?

BPM is executed in the integration Engine.

What is the use of global containers in PI?

Global Container allows you to cache the values that you want to read again when you next call any user-defined function in the same message mapping. Note that the sequence in which user-defined functions are called is predefined. It depends on the position of the target fields that the function was assigned to.

Where do you access the alert inbox and alert configuration?

Runtime Workbench

What is the T-code for opening Integration Builder?


What are the different non-SAP Application adapters? Can you name a few?

BAAN Oracle Seibel People Soft.

What are the advantages of using Web services?

Web service allows programs running on different platforms, operating systems, and different languages to communicate with each other. Web Service is an application function or a service. Web Service can be used through internet standard. Web services can be published and traced. Web service forms a basis for Enterprise Services Architecture (ESA) which is known as SAP's enhanced version of service-oriented architecture SOA.
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