The word hospitality predates the use of the word tourism and first appeared in the 14th century. It is derived from the Latin word hospes, which includes the words, guest, host, and foreigner. The word tourist appeared in print in 1772 (Griffiths and Griffiths 1772 c.f. Introduction to Tourism and Hospitality in BC open access textbook). Travel for leisure purposes has evolved from an experience reserved for very few people into something enjoyed by many.

Historically, the ability to travel was reserved for royalty and the upper classes. From ancient Roman times to the 17th century, young men of elite classes were encouraged to travel through the European “Grand Tour” (Chaney, 2000). Through the middle ages, many societies encouraged the practice of religious pilgrimage. Willian Theobald (1998) suggests that the word tour comes from Greek and Latin words for circle and turn and tourism and tourist represent the activities of circling away from home and then returning. The decade of the 60s seems to have been a significant period in tourism development as more and more travel companies were set up. They increased competition for customers and “moved towards” mass tourism introducing new destinations and modes of holidaying (GYR, 2010 p.32).

The tourism industry’s growth was interrupted by World War I (1914-1918), the Great Depression (Economic) (1930’s), and World War II (1939-1945). Recently, the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Centre in New York (9/11), the war in Iraq, Terrorist attacks around the world, health scares (e-bola, etc.) SARS, BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy), west Nile virus and very recent Easter Sunday church attacks in Sri Lanka (21st April 2019).

In 2020, there is an almost complete stoppage of tourism globally because of the Coronavirus, and COVID-19 Pandemic. The industry began a massive technological shift with the increased use of the internet. Through the 2000s, online travel books grew exponentially (H.T. 29th April 2019) and by 2014 global leader Expedia had expanded to include brands like Hotels.com the Hotwire group, Trivago, and Expedia Cruise Ship centers. Other trends in global tourism can be seen too. The UNWTO (2012) declared that tourism could help rebuild still struggling economies because it is a key export and labor intensive.

Tourism and Migration 

Growth in migration and tourism are two of the most significant manifestations of globalization. Migration makes important social and economic contributions to destination countries, enriching their societies culturally, enhancing the tourism product, and providing labor for the travel, tourism hospitality, and catering sectors. UNWTO has conducted many case studies to establish links between tourism and migration. It reflects the growing interests of tourism geographers. Migration in itself is also a clear generator of tourism demand with the increasingly two-way flow of expatriates visiting their country of origin.

Unskilled labor which is relatively common gives a low entry threshold to most tourist jobs. The national origins of the migrants and tourism-related labor migration streams are also differentiated by gender. Tourism enterprises are increasingly considered as providing an alternative to migration and a vehicle to alleviate poverty in struggling economies by creating job opportunities. Tourists are staying longer in places-blurring the distinction between tourism and migration. A tourist is someone who spends less than a year in a place while migrants may stay longer and not leave. Migrants’ remittances and income from tourism- can be powerful instruments for enhancing tourism-related projects and investments in basic infrastructures at the community level, thereby impacting poverty reduction.

In addition to job creation, improved income sources improve access to better education and health for local people. Through the increase in employment, younger people are encouraged to stay in rural communities rather than migrate to cities. Rural communities are more closely linked to the environment and recognize the value of conservation for sustainable communities since migration refers to people moving from one place to another, it is a key component of population change alongside natural increase.

Tourism is helping to stop forced migration by creating jobs. The economic migrant thus is reducing in numbers, though East European migrants are increasing as they are ready to do DAD jobs- Dirty, Antisocial, and Dangerous. o Contribution of MLT to the development and poverty alleviation through remittances, development of SMEs, knowledge transfers, etc. Need for institutional changes to harness economic benefits and improve social rights and inclusion of migrant workers. o Migrants create new cultural products in developed countries. Restrictions on immigration, restrict tourist development.

Tourism and Colonial Exploration

The beginning of colonization by the European countries during the early nineteenth century was a turning point in the history of tourism. The Westerners in their exploration of the East found cultures that were different from their own and this sparked an interest in exploring these cultures. Tourism in the newly colonized countries worked to master the territory in spatial terms. The colonial state divided the space to make it accessible and to facilitate not only possible intervention but also to inhabit it and exploit it later. It is a symbol of territorial location, the appropriation of place, and the control of environmental constraints. 

Imagined and Remembered Journeys

Memories are mental constructions. They represent short time slices derived from experience; they contain inferences and details derived from the memory of an experience. These journeys may take place in the physical world or in the imagination. A journey can change how we see ourselves and the world whether it is a physical journey or an imagined one, the questions that one needs to ask are: 

1. Where are we going?

2. What will we encounter on the way?

3. What boundaries will we have to cross?

4. How will we travel on foot? By public transportation? By boat or by plane?

5. How long will the journey take?

How are tourism and migration related?

Write about a journey you remember the most and explain why.

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